Food & Drink

Eating Kashmiri Wazwan – Eat Your World

In the northernmost a part of India, Kashmir is world-famous for a number of causes, from its handmade shawls to its gorgeous pure magnificence. But one factor you might not be conversant in is its famend delicacies, referred to as wazwan.

Kashmiri wazwan (additionally spelled wazawan) is a conventional multi-course meal, served on particular events resembling weddings and festivals. This grand feast consists of a wide range of meat-based dishes, greens, and rice, every of which showcases the unbelievable flavors and distinctive cooking strategies discovered on this delicacies. The phrase wazwan is derived from the Persian wazan, which implies weight or steadiness, indicating the flowery and balanced nature of the meal.


The origins of Kashmiri wazwan could be traced again to the royal courts of the Mughal emperors, who dominated over the Indian subcontinent from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century; Mughlai cuisine as an entire is famously wealthy. But whereas wazwan was launched to Kashmir by the Mughals, over time, Kashmiris perfected and blended it into their very own tradition.

Today, wazwan is an integral a part of Kashmiri tradition, and the preparation of it’s thought-about an artwork kind. The cooks who’ve perfected this artwork over generations are referred to as wazas. They usually put together the meal with the assistance of an eight- to 10-person crew.

Not each chef can put together wazwan, because it requires rigorous apply, expertise, and onerous work. The cooking artwork is often handed down from one technology to a different, and wazas begin studying from a really younger age.

A hand-etched copper tash, or sink, and neer, a pitcher for water, used in Kashmiri wazwan.

Traditionally wazwan is served in Kashmir for weddings and different particular events, just like the beginning of kid or Eid. Locals will go to a waza at his house (they’re historically all the time male) and place an order; he’ll usually set a time-frame of two to a few days to arrange the meal. For weddings, the waza and his crew arrange an enormous momentary kitchen through which to make all the pieces, on the home the place the marriage takes place.

You also can discover wazwan in eating places throughout Srinagar, the summer season capital of Jammu and Kashmir. But as a result of most diners wish to eat Indian, Western, and quick meals in eating places, most restaurant cooks will not be professional at making ready wazwan, and the standard simply isn’t there. (See the underside of this publish for one restaurant we do advocate.)

Two men prepare meat for Kashmiri wazwan in an outdoor kitchen.


Wazwan is ready over a wooden hearth, which cooks the meals slowly to boost flavors, in large copper pots referred to as degs. The meal is usually served on massive copper platters referred to as tramis, which maintain sufficient meals for 4 folks and have lovely hand-etched designs. Each dish is fastidiously organized and offered with nice consideration to element, adorned with colourful spices and herbs.

The first step in making ready wazwan is to make the inventory. Typically, an animal is slaughtered upfront—a sheep aged someplace between a lamb and a mutton. After the meat is chopped and added to a water-filled deg, it cooks slowly, and is then seasoned with garlic and salt. This mutton broth varieties the bottom for the remainder of the dishes within the wazwan.

Making shallot paste for Kashmiri wazwan.

Next, the pure reddish meals coloring referred to as mawal (in Kashmiri language) or cockscomb (celosia cristata) is ready. The flowers are crushed with an enormous mortar and pestle to acquire the best hue, later used to present a number of the wazwan dishes, like methi and rogan josh, their wealthy shade.

It’s essential to notice that no artificial colours or spices are utilized in wazwan. From begin to end, the meal makes use of solely pure components.

Gushtaba, a lamb meatball, ready to be cooked during Kashmiri wazwan.


Wazwan sometimes consists of round 36 dishes, though the precise quantity can range relying on the event and variety of friends. The meal is served in a selected order, beginning with a sequence of appetizers and progressing by way of the principle programs, earlier than concluding with desserts. Here are 10 of the most well-liked Kashmiri wazwan dishes.

Steamed white rice with tabak maaz and methi maaz on a trami for Kashmiri wazwan.

Methi Maaz

Methi is the everyday appetizer of wazwan, a mutton dish served alongside tabak maaz (see subsequent) on a trami and coated with a sarposh, or lid. It is ready utilizing mutton tripe and fenugreek leaves.

First, the meat and gut are boiled, then finely chopped with a heavy knife on a picket log (referred to as a mound in Kashmiri). The waza marinates the mutton in a mix of yogurt and spices, which embody cumin, coriander, ginger, garlic, and Kashmiri pink chili powder. The meat is then added to the deg and cooked in ghee over low warmth together with contemporary fenugreek leaves till it’s tender and the flavors have melded collectively.

The slight bitterness of the fenugreek pairs completely with the succulent meat, and the mix of spices creates a depth of taste that’s deliciously satisfying. Methi is spongy and tastes phenomenal with steamed rice: a wealthy, spicy match made in heaven. It’s a dish we are able to’t get sufficient of.

Tabak Maaz

This dish is believed to have originated within the royal kitchens of the Mughal emperors. It is a well-liked starter produced from deep-fried mutton ribs which are seasoned with spices till they’re crispy on the surface and juicy on the within.

The flavors are intense, and the feel good. The ribs are steamed in a broth with spices resembling clove, garlic, garam masala, asafoetida, and aniseed. (It’s essential to notice that little or no to no turmeric and chili powder are added, regardless of what some sources on the web might say.) Once steamed, the ribs are lower into items and positioned on a big copper plate referred to as a majme, which bulges a bit within the heart. Then, they’re slowly fried in ghee and mutton fats. The remaining result’s the tabak maaz, which is crisp and brown on the surface and extremely comfortable and juicy on the within.

Despite the few spices used, the flavour of those ribs is unbelievable. One cause for that is that tabaz maaz is fried in ghee alongside melted mutton fats—this infuses a singular taste into the meat, absorbed slowly over the simmering wooden hearth. The comfortable, tender meat melts like butter in your mouth, releasing all of that wealthy mutton-fat taste.

A Kashmiri person hand-grinds meat to make gushtaba and rista, lamb meatballs, for Kashmiri wazwan using a hammer called a goshpare.


Rista is a conventional Kashmiri meatball produced from floor mutton meat and fats. After the animal is slaughtered, the meat and fats are separated for the preparation of this dish. With the assistance of a picket hammer (a goshpare, in Kashmiri), the mutton meat is manually floor on a big rock till it turns right into a tremendous paste; lamb fats can also be added through the course of. Connective tissues, fibers, and veins are eliminated throughout this pounding course of. Once the meat is finely floor, spices resembling black cardamom, cinnamon, clove, garam masala, shallot paste, garlic, fennel powder, and extra are added.

Meatballs are then ready and soaked in heat water for some time. The meatballs are cooked in a wealthy, tomato-based gravy flavored with fragrant spices resembling saffron, cinnamon, and cardamom. Finally, they’re steam-cooked over the wooden hearth.

The end result, rista, is an extremely scrumptious, comfortable meatball with unbelievable taste, due to all these spices. The thick, velvety gravy enhances the meat completely.


Another important Kashmiri wazwan dish is the kebab, skewered mutton meat marinated in a mix of spices and grilled to perfection utilizing mutton fats. The kebabs are tender and moist and have a scrumptious smoky taste, infused with spices like garam masala, cardamom, cinnamon powder, ginger, garlic, cumin, onion paste, and naturally the wooden hearth itself. The secret to its distinct style, nevertheless, is the addition of rooster meat to the mutton.

As you devour a kebab, the meat additional releases its juices and signature smoky taste. They’re really a delight to eat.

A ladleful of rogan josh, a velvety thick, bright-red and very spicy Kashmiri dish that is part of Kashmiri wazwan cuisine.

Rogan Josh

Rogan josh is probably probably the most well-known Kashmiri wazwan dish (notably within the UK, the place it’s a staple at every London curry house). It is a mutton curry cooked in a spicy yogurt-based sauce. The tender chunks of meat are seasoned with fragrant spices like Kashmiri chili powder, cardamom, cinnamon, fennel powder, shallot paste, and dried ginger powder that impart an unforgettable style.

The dish is called for its wealthy pink shade (rogan means pink), which comes from the chili powder, although that mawal coloring helps too. The meat is so tender that it falls off the bones. Rogan josh is spicy and tangy, and the gradual cooking pulls all of the juice from the meat and bones, including taste and texture. The daring spices and tender mutton in rogan josh deliver a tantalizing, mouth-watering warmth.

A decorative plate of pulao, basmati rice with raisins and nuts, for Kashmiri wazwan.

Kashmiri Pulao

Pulao is a aromatic basmati rice dish with origins in Persian delicacies; this model was tailored to Kashmiri tastes with the addition of saffron, raisins, and nuts (almonds and cashews), that are generally discovered within the area. It is usually golden brown because of the onion paste utilized in its preparation.

This basmati rice is nice and aids in digestion, offering steadiness to the wealthy and spicy dishes served. It is often ready as a aspect for the wazwan, though additionally it is a separate principal dish in Kashmiri delicacies.

Aab gosh, a creamy mutton curry, in a traditional deg, or copper pot, for Kashmiri wazwan.

Aab Gosh

Aab interprets to “water” in Kashmiri, and because the identify suggests, it’s mouth-watering—even only for this author to consider it! Aab gosh is ready from the hip meat of a sheep, cooked in a sauce manufactured from buffalo milk that’s simmered till creamy. Bone broth, meat inventory, and ghee are added together with spices resembling black cardamom, shallot paste, inexperienced cardamom, and fennel powder. This meat is slowly cooked over a wooden hearth, mixing every taste in unison.

The style is celestial. The dish is nice, however not too candy. The interaction of cream, ghee, and all of the spices makes it completely balanced. You shall be blown away!

Dhaniwal Korma

Another attention-grabbing wazwan dish is dhaniwal korma, a mutton curry that’s cooked with complete onions, herbs, and spices together with garam masala, clove, inexperienced cardamom, cinnamon, fennel powder, garlic paste, and ginger paste. The onions are candy and tender, including a definite texture and taste to the dish.

What units this dish aside is the creamy, zesty sauce. The tender meat is cooked in yogurt with each floor and freshly chopped coriander (cilantro). Coriander binds the flavour of all of the spices and offers this dish steadiness. With its gentle spice and contemporary herbs, dhaniwal korma is likely to be thought-about the right foil to rogan josh.

Gushtaba, a lamb meatball dish, for Kashmiri wazwan.


This is a signature concluding dish of Kashmiri wazwan, produced from minced mutton that’s hand-beaten for hours till it takes on a comfortable, dough-like texture. It is then formed into massive meatballs and cooked in a spiced creamy yogurt sauce referred to as yakhni. This thick, wealthy yakhni curry, flavored with fennel, cardamom, mint, and different fragrant spices, is what makes gushtaba so distinctive.

The meatballs change into extremely comfortable and tender, and the velvety sauce simply envelops them. It’s absolute decadence, and it sings with bursting, balanced flavors. Gushtaba isn’t very spicy, however the flavors are so advanced and nuanced that you just’ll end up slowing down, attempting to determine all of them. It’s an ideal savory dish to finish on.

Kashmiri saffron kehwa, a greenish tea with floating saffron leaves that's drunk during a traditional Kashmir wazwan feast.

Kashmiri Saffron Kehwa

You might need heard the phrase kehwa or kahwa in popular culture, as regards to India and particularly Pakistan. Although kehwa is ready in elements of Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, Kashmiri saffron kehwa chai is exclusive in its preparation and spices. After the heavy feast of wazwan, it’s a dessert tea served primarily to help with digestion. It contains the world-famous Kashmiri saffron together with inexperienced cardamom and Kashmiri almonds.   

Similar to inexperienced tea in look, it’s golden inexperienced, however it has an extremely candy, inexperienced cardamom-spiked style. The sweetness is balanced by the spices, making for a beautiful blended tea. The aroma of cardamom fills the whole room whereas kehwa is brewed and served!

View of Dal Lake and Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir

Where to Eat Wazwan in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir

Wazwan is a celebration of the group and a testomony to the wealthy culinary heritage of Kashmir, a area formed by centuries of cultural and historic influences. Naturally, if you’re touring to Kashmir, it’s best to attempt to expertise the scrumptious meals, lovely presentation, and distinctive hospitality of wazwan your self!

One possibility—one of the best one, if it’s attainable—is to discover a skilled waza who will prepare dinner a contemporary multicourse meal proper in entrance of you. One such waza, identified throughout, is Lateef Khosa (identified domestically as Khosa Waza) positioned within the Nawid Kadal space of previous Srinagar. He’s cooked for a lot of well-known personalities over time (thankfully for my household, he was pleasant with my grandfather, and cooked at my mother and father’ wedding ceremony). It is likely to be onerous for the typical vacationer to make this occur, in fact, so a restaurant is the subsequent greatest wager.

Many eating places prepare dinner wazwan that’s not of excellent high quality—it’s like a knockoff of a well-liked model, utilizing artificial spices and in addition usually making the meals too spicy for some Western palates. But one which does job is Ahdoo’s, an historic resort and restaurant that has carved a distinct segment for itself in wazwan and is positioned within the coronary heart of Srinagar, on Residency Road (map). It claims it was the primary restaurant established within the Kashmir Valley, in 1918. At Ahdoo’s you may build your own trami plate, pictured above (along with your alternative of three non-veg dishes and two veg dishes), for 900 INR, or about US$11.

(By distinction, it will usually value about 6,000 INR, or US$73, for a full trami with a waza, which might be a whole wazwan for 4 folks.)

However you will discover it, experiencing wazwan, and the distinct delights of Kashmiri delicacies, is an absolute should on this a part of India.


About the creator: Zain Shah is a scholar hailing from the breathtaking land of Kashmir. His ardent love for his homeland stems from its wealthy cultural heritage, its tantalizing delicacies, and its distinctive crafts that epitomize Kashmiris’ identification. He writes at and Kashmir-Arts, a retailer for genuine Kashmiri merchandise.

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